Nephrology is a specialty of medicine focused on the kidneys, specifically normal kidney function and kidney disease, the preservation of kidney health and the treatment of kidney disease, from diet and medication to renal replacement therapy (dialysis and kidney transplantation).
Nephrology also studies systemic conditions that affect the kidneys, such as diabetes and autoimmune disease and systemic diseases that occur as a result of kidney disease, such as renal osteodystrophy and hypertension.
Patients are referred to Nephrology specialists after a urinalysis, for various reasons, such as
- Acute kidney failure
- Chronic kidney disease
- Kidney stones
- Disorders of acid/base or electrolytes